How to upload video


This is a research project. Video uploads are restricted to veterinary neurology specialist. If you have a dog with epilepsy, the best way to get help is to see your local veterinarian and if possible be referred to a Veterinary neurology specialist

If you are a Veterinary Neurology specialist and would like to register to contribute, please follow this link. After your profile is validated you can start uploading videos.


You will be requested to fill a form with details, history, clinical and diagnostic findings of the case.

The video should be priory uploaded on  you tube, you can then copy the ULR on the form when requested.

Follow this link to upload video form

If you are having problems or you would like to send the case via email, please contact

Current clasification, description and definition proposal

The Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) periodically updates the seizures and epilepsy classification. Veterinary publications based on terminology and classification of seizures have generally adapted the basis of ILAE classifications to fit small animal patients (Berendt 1999). In 2014, a group of Veterinary Neurology Specialists and Non-specialists founded the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF). IVETF reflected new thoughts from the human ILAE, but also considered well accepted veterinary terminology and practice. These consensus statements should be seen as the beginning rather than the end of this process.


Generalized epileptic seizures Generalized epileptic seizures are characteried by bilateral involvement (both sides of body and therefore both cerebral hemispheres involved). Generalized epileptic seizures may occur alone or evolve from a focal epileptic seizure start. In dogs and cats generalized epileptic seizures predominantly present as tonic, clonic or tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. As a rule the animal will loseconsciousness during convulsive epileptic seizures (myoclonic seizures excluded). Salivation, urination and/or defecation furthermore often also occur (myoclonicseizures excluded)

Focal epileptic seizures: Focal epileptic seizures are characterized by lateralized
and/or regional signs (motor, autonomic or behavioural signs, alone or in combination). The ictal onset is consistent from one epileptic seizure to another. They may be discretely localised or more widely distributed. Focal epileptic seizures may originate in subcortical structures, with preferential propagation patterns that can involve the contralateral hemisphere. With focal epileptic seizures, the abnormal electrical activity arises in a localized group of neurons or network within one hemisphere. The clinical signs reflect the functions of the area or areas involved
Motor seizures : Motor phenomena e.g. facial twitches, repeated jerking head movements, rhythmic blinking, twitching of facial musculature or repeated rhythmic jerks of one extremity). Involves skeletal musculature resulting in any phenotypic manifestation.
Non motor seizures: Also called drop attacks. Sudden and general loss of muscle tone which usually cause the animal to collapse. When patients present decrease or total absence of motor activity as main sign

Autonomic seizure: With parasympathetic and epigastric components. A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control autonomic functions results in episodes of abnormal sudden symptoms such: as vomiting, flushing, sweating, pallor, pupil dilation/contraction, abnormal heart rhythm, hunger, abdominal pain, nausea, urination, altered breathing, belching, flatulence or borborygmi.

Behavioural seizure: Focal epileptic seizure activity which in humans can represent psychic and/or sensory seizure phenomena may in animals result in a short lasting episodic change in behaviour such as e.g. anxiousness, restlessnesss, unexplainable fear reactions or abnormal attention seeking/clinging to the owner.


Idiopathic epilepsy: A disease in its own right, per se. Including:
 -> Idiopathic epilepsy (genetic epilepsy): a causative gene for epilepsy has been identified/confirmed genetic background
 -> Idiopathic epilepsy (suspected genetic epilepsy): a genetic influence supported by a high breed prevalence (>2 %), genealogical analysis and/or familial accumulation of epileptic individuals. A list of breeds with a high epilepsy incidence or prevalence compared to the general background population can be found in Hülsmeyer et al.
 -> Idiopathic epilepsy (epilepsy of unknown cause): Epilepsy in which the nature of the underlying cause is as yet unknown and with no indication of structural epilepsy
Structural epilepsy: is characterized by epileptic seizures which are provoked by intracranial/cerebral pathology including vascular, inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, anomalous/developmental, neoplastic and degenerative diseases confirmed by diagnostic imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, DNA testing or post mortem findings

Unknown cause: A suspected symtomatic cause, which however remains obscure. Known before as Cryptogenic epilepsy This term was used by The Commission on Classification and terminology in 1989 for designating “probably symptomatic” epilepsies.


Prodome: A pre-ictal phenomenon. A subjective or objective clinical alteration that heralds the onset of an epileptic seizure but does not form part of it. Prodrome is a long lasting event (hours to days) and should not be confused with focal onset seizure signs which are very brief events (seconds to minutes).

Postical phenomenum: A transient clinical abnormality of central nervous system function that appears or becomes accentuated when clinical signs of the ictus have ended.

Status epilepticus: An epileptic seizure which shows no clinical signs of arresting after a duration encompassing the great majority of seizures of that type in most patients or recurrent epileptic seizures without resumption of baseline central nervous system function interictally. Status epilepticus can be defined clinically as (a) greater than 5 min of continuous epileptic seizures or (b) two or more discrete epileptic seizures between which there is incomplete recovery of consciousness (for generalized convulsive seizures).

Cluster: Incidence of epileptic seizures within a given period (usually one or a few days) which exceeds the average of incidence over a longer period for the patient. Cluster seizures can be defined clinically as two or more seizures within a 24-h period.


Berendt M, Farquhar RG, Mandigers PJ, Pakozdy A, Bhatti SF, De Risio L, Fischer A, Long S, Matiasek K, Muñana K, Patterson EE, Penderis J, Platt S, Podell M, Potschka H, Pumarola MB, Rusbridge C, Stein VM, Tipold A, Volk HA. (2015) International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 28

Berendt M., Gram L. (1999) Epilepsy and seizure classification in 63 dogs: a reappraisal of veterinary epilepsy terminology. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13(1), 14-20

Berg A. T., Berkovic S. F., Brodie M. J., Buchhalter J., Cross J. H., van Emde Boas W., Engel J., French J., Glauser T. A., Mathern G. W., Moshé S. L., Nordli D., Plouin P., Scheffer I. E. (2010) Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005-2009. Epilepsia 51(4), 676-85

Engel J. Jr. (2006) Report of the ILAE classification core group. Epilepsia 47(9), 1558-68

Hülsmeyer VI, Fischer A, Mandigers P, DeRisio L, Berendt M, Rusbridge C, et al. Current evidence for idiopathic epilepsy in purebred dogs. BMC veterinary research 2015.
Mariani C. L. (2013) Terminology and classification of seizures and epilepsy in veterinary patients. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 28(2), 34-41