About

Aim of the website:

To build up an international database of canine epilepsy videos, recorded by owners and uploaded by Veterinary Neurology Specialists.

The ultimate goal is that the information gathered by this video database will be analysed to describe the epileptic seizures thoroughly, recognize patterns and move towards a better understanding and therefore classification of canine epileptic seizures . For this purpose we need to collect an extensive video library. This pool of information will be accessible for research and will help spread knowledge of the disease among academics, veterinarians and dog owners. Comprehensive research is still due in veterinary epilepsy and we do believe this website will be a major contributor to this purpose.

Background:

Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders both in humans and in dogs. Epilepsy has a prevalence of 0,6-0,7% in the general canine population. Affected dogs have a shortened life expectancy and are an increased risk of developing comorbidities. Seizures imply the appearance of signs and symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity of the brain and epilepsy is considered to be a disorder of the brain in which patients suffer from an enduring predisposition to present seizures.

Since 1960’s, the Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) has periodically updated the seizure and epilepsy classification, initially based on semiology, interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings and EEG ictal patterns.

In veterinary neurology this definition was also adopted because there are striking similarities between human and canine epilepsy. Dogs are a good translation model mainly due to their size, natural occurring disease and the fact that they share the same environment as humans. Human epilepsy is a support and inspiration for classification, diagnosis and treatment in veterinary neurology. However, one of the major disadvantages when comparing human and veterinary epilepsy is the limited seizure/epilepsy classification available to the veterinary neurologist due to lack of  ictal semiology description.

In 2014, a group of Veterinary Neurology Specialists and Non-specialists founded the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF). IVETF reflected new thoughts from the human ILAE, but also considered well accepted veterinary terminology and practice. These consensus statements should be seen as the beginning rather than the end of this process.

Electroncephalography (EEG)-video monitoring refers to continuous EEG recording with simultaneous video recording of the clinical manifestations. EEG recording in dogs is still limited. Ambulatory EEG/video recording in dogs has been already describe and results are promising. However, EEG is still an impractical tool on owner based animals, and it does not describe the seizure phenomena. Clinical history, supported by video recording of the seizures, remain the most useful epilepsy diagnostic marker in dogs.

In recent times the advanced distribution of hand-held recording devices (smatphones) within owners, has lead into a phenomenal increased of video recordings of symptomatic dogs. Therefore, the veterinary neurologist is now exposed to this precious information: seizure symptoms, seizure description.

Acknowledging that ambulatory EEG/video recording will be the gold standard, but considering the still necessary improvement in EEG signal analysis in dogs, we envisage that a consensus protocol based ambulatory video recording could be very useful for veterinary neurologist in order to better evaluate real seizure frequency, type and severity: this method could also allow to achieve a more accurate syndrome diagnosis of epilepsy and facilitate the choice of a more specific complementary test or drug treatment for each case. We want to remark that in any case, specific training is necessary for an optimal interpretation of canine seizure semiology and signs progression during seizures.

Volk HA. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus reports on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology, affected dog breeds, diagnosis, treatment, outcome measures of therapeutic trials, neuroimaging and neuropathology in companion animals. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 28;

Berendt M., Gredal H., Alving J. (2004). Characteristics and phenomenology of epileptic partial seizures in dogs: Similarities with human seizure semiology. Epilepsy Research 61, 167–173

Berg A. T., Berkovic S. F., Brodie M. J., Buchhalter J., Cross J. H., van Emde Boas W., Engel J., French J., Glauser T. A., Mathern G. W., Moshé S. L., Nordli D., Plouin P., Scheffer I. E. (2010) Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005-2009. Epilepsia 51(4), 676-85

Brauer C., Kästner S. B., Rohn K., Schenk H. C., Tünsmeyer J., Tipold A. (2012) Electroencephalographic recordings in dogs suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy: diagnostic value of interictal short time EEG protocols supplemented by two activation techniques.Vet J 193(1), 185-92

Coles, l. d., Patterson, e. e., Sheffield, w. d., Mavoori, j., Higgins, j., Michael, b., Leyde, k., Cloyd, j. c., Litt, b., Vite, c. Worrell, g. a. (2013) Feasibility study of a caregiver seizure alert system in canine epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, 106, 456-460

Fisher R. S., Acevedo C., Arzimanoglou A., Bogacz A., Cross J. H., Elger C. E., Engel J. Jr, Forsgren L., French J. A., Glynn M., Hesdorffer D. C., Lee B. I., Mathern G. W., Moshé S. L., Perucca E., Scheffer I. E., Tomson T., Watanabe M., Wiebe S. (2014). ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia 55(4), 475-82

Howbert, j. j., Patterson, e. e., Stead, s. m., Brinkmann, b., Vasoli, v., Crepeau, d., Vite, c. h., Sturges, b., Ruedebusch, v., Mavoori, j., Leyde, k., Sheffield, w. d., Litt, b., Worrell, g. a.( 2014) Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. PLoS ONE, 9, e81920

Packer, r. m., Berendt, m., Bhatti, s., Charalambous, m., Cizinauskas, s., De Risio, l., Farquhar, r., Hampel, r., Hill, m., Mandigers, p. j.,Ppakozdy, a., Preston, s. m., Rusbridge, c., Stein, v. m., Taylor-brown, f., Tipold, a. , Volk, h. a. (2015) Inter-observer agreement of canine and feline paroxysmal event semiology and classification by veterinary neurology specialists and non-specialists. BMC Vet Res, 11, 39

Preston S. M., Shihab N., Volk H. A. (2013) Public perception of epilepsy in dogs is more favorable than in humans. Epilepsy Behav 27(1), 243-6

Funding:

Canine seizures is an ‘unincorporated association’ which means it is not created to generate a profit. The cost of creating and running the website has been financed by donations:

Donors:

North Down Specialist Referrals

Administrative team

Ane Uriarte: Founder
Dip ECVN, MRCVS, DVM, RCVS & European Specialist in Veterinary Neurology

Clifford Brown: Technical Advisor